जॉन सिडनी मैक्केन III (२९ अगस्त, १९३६ - २५ अगस्त, २०१८) एक अमेरिकी राजनीतिज्ञ, राजनेता और संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के नौसेना अधिकारी थे, जिन्होंने १९८७ से एरिज़ोना के लिए संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के सीनेटर के रूप में २०१८ में अपनी मृत्यु तक सेवा की। यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स हाउस ऑफ रिप्रेजेंटेटिव्स और 2008 के चुनाव में संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के राष्ट्रपति पद के लिए रिपब्लिकन उम्मीदवार थे , जिसे वह बराक ओबामा से हार गए थे ।
से संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के सीनेटर
3 जनवरी, 1987 - 25 अगस्त, 2018
|इससे पहले||बैरी गोल्डवाटर|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||जॉन काइलो|
|के सदस्य अमेरिकी प्रतिनिधि सभा|
से एरिजोना के 1 जिले
3 जनवरी, 1983 - 3 जनवरी, 1987
|इससे पहले||जॉन जैकब रोड्स|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||जॉन जैकब रोड्स III|
|के अध्यक्ष सीनेट सशस्त्र सेवा समिति|
3 जनवरी, 2015 - 25 अगस्त, 2018
|इससे पहले||कार्ल लेविन|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||जिम इनहोफे|
|के अध्यक्ष सीनेट भारतीय मामलों की समिति|
3 जनवरी, 2005 - 3 जनवरी, 2007
|इससे पहले||बेन नाइटथॉर्स कैंपबेल|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||बायरन डोरगन|
3 जनवरी, 1995 - 3 जनवरी, 1997
|इससे पहले||डेनियल इनौये|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||बेन नाइटथॉर्स कैंपबेल|
|के अध्यक्ष सीनेट वाणिज्य समिति|
3 जनवरी 2003 - 3 जनवरी 2005
|इससे पहले||फ़्रिट्ज़ हॉलिंग्स|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||टेड स्टीवंस|
20 जनवरी 2001 - 3 जून 2001
|इससे पहले||फ़्रिट्ज़ हॉलिंग्स|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||फ़्रिट्ज़ हॉलिंग्स|
3 जनवरी, 1997 - 3 जनवरी, 2001
|इससे पहले||लैरी प्रेसलर|
|इसके द्वारा सफ़ल||फ़्रिट्ज़ हॉलिंग्स|
|उत्पन्न होने वाली|
जॉन सिडनी मैक्केन III
२९ अगस्त १९३६
कोको सोलो , पनामा नहर क्षेत्र , यू.एस
|मर गए||25 अगस्त, 2018 (आयु 81) |
कॉर्नविल, एरिज़ोना , यूएस
|मौत का कारण||ग्लयोब्लास्टोमा|
|शांत स्थान||संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका नौसेना अकादमी कब्रिस्तान , अन्नापोलिस, मैरीलैंड|
|बच्चे||7, मेघन सहित|
|रिश्तेदारों||जो मैक्केन (भाई)|
|शिक्षा||यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स नेवल एकेडमी ( बी.एस. )|
|निष्ठा||संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका|
|शाखा/सेवा||संयुक्त राज्य नौसेना|
|सेवा के वर्ष||1958-1981|
|पुरस्कार||सिल्वर स्टार |
लीजन ऑफ मेरिट (2) कॉम्बैट "वी" के साथ
विशिष्ट फ्लाइंग क्रॉस
कांस्य स्टार मेडल (3) कॉम्बैट "वी"
अन्य के साथ
मैक्केन ने 1958 में यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स नेवल एकेडमी से स्नातक किया और यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स नेवी में कमीशन प्राप्त किया । वह एक नौसैनिक एविएटर बन गया और विमान वाहक पोत से जमीन पर हमला करने वाले विमान उड़ाए । वियतनाम युद्ध के दौरान , 1967 के यूएसएस फॉरेस्टल आग में मैक्केन की लगभग मृत्यु हो गई । अक्टूबर 1967 में हनोई के ऊपर ऑपरेशन रोलिंग थंडर के दौरान एक बमबारी मिशन के दौरान , उन्हें गोली मार दी गई, गंभीर रूप से घायल हो गए, और उत्तरी वियतनामी द्वारा कब्जा कर लिया गया । मैक्केन 1973 तक युद्ध बंदी थे । उन्होंने यातना के एपिसोड का अनुभव किया और एक आउट-ऑफ-सीक्वेंस जल्दी रिहाई से इनकार कर दिया । युद्ध के दौरान, मैक्केन ने घावों को बरकरार रखा जिसने उन्हें आजीवन शारीरिक अक्षमताओं के साथ छोड़ दिया। वह 1981 में एक कप्तान के रूप में नौसेना से सेवानिवृत्त हुए और एरिज़ोना चले गए, जहाँ उन्होंने राजनीति में प्रवेश किया।
1982 में, मैक्केन यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स हाउस ऑफ रिप्रेजेंटेटिव्स के लिए चुने गए, जहाँ उन्होंने दो कार्यकाल दिए। वह 1986 में अमेरिकी सीनेट के लिए चुने गए, गोल्डवाटर की सेवानिवृत्ति पर एरिज़ोना के मूल निवासी, रूढ़िवादी आइकन और 1964 के रिपब्लिकन राष्ट्रपति पद के उम्मीदवार बैरी गोल्डवाटर के बाद, और मैककेन ने आसानी से पांच बार फिर से चुनाव जीता। आम तौर पर रूढ़िवादी सिद्धांतों का पालन करते हुए , मैक्केन को कुछ मुद्दों पर अपनी पार्टी से अलग होने की इच्छा के लिए "मवेरिक" के रूप में भी प्रतिष्ठा मिली थी। एलजीबीटी अधिकारों , बंदूक नियमों और अभियान वित्त सुधार पर उनके रुख पार्टी के आधार की तुलना में अधिक उदार थे। कीटिंग फाइव में से एक के रूप में 1980 के दशक के एक राजनीतिक प्रभाव घोटाले में मैक्केन की जांच की गई और काफी हद तक उन्हें बरी कर दिया गया ; फिर उन्होंने राजनीतिक अभियानों के वित्तपोषण को विनियमित करना अपनी एक प्रमुख चिंता का विषय बना दिया, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप अंततः 2002 में मैक्केन-फींगोल्ड अधिनियम पारित हुआ। उन्हें 1990 के दशक में वियतनाम के साथ राजनयिक संबंधों को बहाल करने के लिए उनके काम के लिए भी जाना जाता था । मैक्केन ने 1997 से 2001 और 2003 से 2005 तक सीनेट वाणिज्य समिति की अध्यक्षता की , जहां उन्होंने पोर्क बैरल खर्च और इयरमार्क का विरोध किया । वह द्विदलीय " गैंग ऑफ 14 " से संबंधित थे , जिसने न्यायिक नामांकन पर संकट को कम करने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई।
मैक्केन ने 2000 में राष्ट्रपति पद के लिए रिपब्लिकन नामांकन की दौड़ में प्रवेश किया, लेकिन टेक्सास के गवर्नर जॉर्ज डब्ल्यू बुश से एक गर्म प्राथमिक सत्र प्रतियोगिता हार गए । उन्होंने 2008 में रिपब्लिकन राष्ट्रपति पद का नामांकन हासिल किया लेकिन बराक ओबामा से आम चुनाव हार गए । मैक्केन ने बाद में अधिक रूढ़िवादी रूढ़िवादी रुख और दृष्टिकोण अपनाया और ओबामा प्रशासन के बड़े पैमाने पर विरोध कार्यों को अपनाया , खासकर विदेश नीति के मामलों के संबंध में। 2015 में, वह सीनेट सशस्त्र सेवा समिति के अध्यक्ष बने । उन्होंने 2016 में तत्कालीन रिपब्लिकन राष्ट्रपति पद के उम्मीदवार डोनाल्ड ट्रम्प का समर्थन करने से इनकार कर दिया ; मैक्केन ने उसी वर्ष छठे और अंतिम कार्यकाल के लिए फिर से चुनाव जीता । मैक्केन ट्रंप प्रशासन के मुखर आलोचक थे। जबकि मैक्केन ने अफोर्डेबल केयर एक्ट का विरोध किया , उन्होंने 2017 के एसीए-रिपीलिंग अमेरिकन हेल्थ केयर एक्ट के खिलाफ निर्णायक वोट डाला ।  २०१७ में ब्रेन कैंसर ( ग्लियोब्लास्टोमा ) से निदान होने के बाद , उन्होंने इलाज पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने के लिए सीनेट में अपनी भूमिका कम कर दी, और टैक्स कट्स एंड जॉब्स एक्ट २०१७ के पारित होने का समर्थन किया । 25 अगस्त, 2018 को 81 वर्ष की आयु में उनका निधन हो गया। उनकी मृत्यु के बाद, मैक्केन एरिज़ोना स्टेट कैपिटल रोटुंडा में और फिर यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स कैपिटल रोटुंडा में राज्य में रहे । उनके अंतिम संस्कार का प्रसारण वाशिंगटन नेशनल कैथेड्रल से किया गया था , जिसमें पूर्व राष्ट्रपति जॉर्ज डब्ल्यू बुश और बराक ओबामा ने स्तुति दी थी।
प्रारंभिक जीवन और सैन्य कैरियर (1936-1981)
प्रारंभिक जीवन और शिक्षा
जॉन सिडनी मैक्केन III का जन्म 29 अगस्त 1936 को पनामा नहर क्षेत्र में कोको सोलो नेवल एयर स्टेशन में नौसेना अधिकारी जॉन एस मैक्केन जूनियर और रोबर्टा (राइट) मैक्केन के घर हुआ था । उनकी एक बड़ी बहन सैंडी और एक छोटा भाई जो था ।  उस समय, पनामा नहर अमेरिकी नियंत्रण में थी। 
मैक्केन के वंश के पेड़ में स्कॉट्स-आयरिश और अंग्रेजी पूर्वज शामिल हैं।  उनके परदादा-परदादा के पास हाई रॉक फ़ार्म था , जो रॉकिंगहैम काउंटी, उत्तरी कैरोलिना में एक वृक्षारोपण था ।  उनके पिता और उनके दादा, जॉन एस. मैक्केन सीनियर भी नौसेना अकादमी से स्नातक थे और दोनों संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका की नौसेना में चार सितारा एडमिरल बन गए ।  मैक्केन परिवार अपने पिता के साथ चला गया क्योंकि उन्होंने संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका और प्रशांत क्षेत्र में विभिन्न नौसैनिक पोस्टिंग ली थी।  
नतीजतन, उन्होंने कुल लगभग 20 स्कूलों में भाग लिया।  १९५१ में, परिवार उत्तरी वर्जीनिया में बस गया , और मैक्केन ने एपिस्कोपल हाई स्कूल , अलेक्जेंड्रिया में एक निजी प्रारंभिक बोर्डिंग स्कूल में भाग लिया ।   उन्होंने कुश्ती में उत्कृष्ट प्रदर्शन किया और १९५४ में स्नातक की उपाधि प्राप्त की।   उन्होंने हाल ही में जून २००७ के रूप में खुद को एक एपिस्कोपेलियन के रूप में संदर्भित किया , जिसके बाद उन्होंने कहा कि उन्हें एक बैपटिस्ट के रूप में पहचान मिली। 
अपने पिता और दादा के नक्शेकदम पर चलते हुए, मैक्केन ने यूनाइटेड स्टेट्स नेवल अकादमी में प्रवेश किया , जहां वह अपने कई सहपाठियों  के लिए एक मित्र और अनौपचारिक नेता थे और कभी-कभी धमकाने के लक्ष्य के लिए खड़े होते थे ।  वह एक हल्के मुक्केबाज के रूप में भी लड़े ।  मैक्केन ने साहित्य और इतिहास जैसे अकादमिक विषयों में अच्छा प्रदर्शन किया, लेकिन केवल उन विषयों को पास करने के लिए पर्याप्त अध्ययन किया, जिससे उन्हें गणित जैसी कठिनाई हुई।   उनका उच्च-रैंकिंग कर्मियों के साथ टकराव हुआ और उन्होंने हमेशा उन नियमों का पालन नहीं किया, जो उच्च IQ के बावजूद निम्न श्रेणी रैंक (८९९ में से ८९४) में योगदान करते थे ।   मैक्केन ने १९५८ में स्नातक की उपाधि प्राप्त की। 
मैक्केन ने अपना प्रारंभिक सैन्य करियर तब शुरू किया जब उन्हें एक ध्वजवाहक के रूप में नियुक्त किया गया था , और नौसेना के एविएटर बनने के लिए पेंसाकोला में ढाई साल का प्रशिक्षण शुरू किया ।  वहां रहते हुए, उन्होंने पार्टी करने वाले व्यक्ति के रूप में ख्याति अर्जित की।  उन्होंने १९६० में फ़्लाइट स्कूल पूरा किया, और ग्राउंड-अटैक एयरक्राफ्ट के नौसैनिक पायलट बन गए ; वह करने के लिए सौंपा गया था ए -1 Skyraider स्क्वाड्रनों  पर सवार विमान वाहक यूएसएस निडर और यूएसएस एंटरप्राइज  में कैरेबियन और भूमध्य सागरों ।  मैक्केन ने एक सब-पैरा फ़्लायर के रूप में शुरुआत की  जो कभी-कभी लापरवाह और लापरवाह थे;  १९६० के दशक की शुरुआत में, उनके दो उड़ान मिशन दुर्घटनाग्रस्त हो गए, और एक तीसरा मिशन बिजली की लाइनों से टकरा गया, लेकिन उन्हें कोई बड़ी चोट नहीं आई।  समय के साथ उनके उड्डयन कौशल में सुधार हुआ,  और उन्हें एक अच्छे पायलट के रूप में देखा गया, भले ही उन्होंने अपनी उड़ान में " लिफाफा धक्का " दिया। 
3 जुलाई, 1965 को मैक्केन 28 वर्ष के थे, जब उन्होंने कैरल शेप से शादी की , जिन्होंने रनवे मॉडल और सचिव के रूप में काम किया था।  मैक्केन ने अपने दो छोटे बच्चों डगलस और एंड्रयू को गोद लिया।   तब उनकी और कैरल की एक बेटी हुई, जिसका नाम उन्होंने सिडनी रखा।  
मैक्केन ने एक लड़ाकू असाइनमेंट का अनुरोध किया,  और विमानवाहक पोत यूएसएस फॉरेस्टल को ए -4 स्काईवॉक्स उड़ाने के लिए सौंपा गया ।  उनकी युद्धक ड्यूटी तब शुरू हुई जब वे १९६७ के मध्य में ३० वर्ष के थे, जब फोरेस्टल को वियतनाम युद्ध के दौरान एक बमबारी अभियान, ऑपरेशन रोलिंग थंडर को सौंपा गया था ।   टोंकिन की खाड़ी में तैनात , मैककेन और उनके साथी पायलट वाशिंगटन के सूक्ष्म प्रबंधन से निराश हो गए, और उन्होंने बाद में लिखा, "सभी स्पष्ट रूप से, हमने सोचा कि हमारे नागरिक कमांडर पूर्ण बेवकूफ थे जिनके पास कम से कम नहीं था युद्ध जीतने के लिए क्या करना पड़ा इसकी धारणा।"  
29 जुलाई 1967 को, मैक्केन एक लेफ्टिनेंट कमांडर थे, जब वे यूएसएस फॉरेस्टल फायर के केंद्र के पास थे । वह अपने जलते जेट से भाग निकला और एक अन्य पायलट को भागने में मदद करने की कोशिश कर रहा था जब एक बम विस्फोट हुआ;  मैक्केन की टांगों और छाती में टुकड़े-टुकड़े हो गए।  आगामी आग में १३४ नाविकों की मौत हो गई और नियंत्रण में २४ घंटे लग गए।   फॉरेस्टल के कमीशन से बाहर होने के साथ , मैककेन ने ऑपरेशन रोलिंग थंडर में कार्यरत एक अन्य विमान वाहक यूएसएस ओरिस्कनी के साथ काम करने के लिए स्वेच्छा से काम किया ।  वहां, उन्हें उत्तरी वियतनाम के ऊपर से उड़ान भरने वाले मिशनों के लिए नेवी कमेंडेशन मेडल और ब्रॉन्ज स्टार मेडल से सम्मानित किया गया। 
जंग का कैदी
मैक्केन को 26 अक्टूबर 1967 को युद्ध बंदी बना लिया गया था । वह उत्तरी वियतनाम के ऊपर अपना 23वां बमबारी मिशन उड़ा रहे थे, जब उनके ए-4ई स्काईहॉक को हनोई के ऊपर एक मिसाइल द्वारा मार गिराया गया था ।   जब मैक्केन विमान से बाहर निकले तो उनके दोनों हाथ और एक पैर टूट गया,  और ट्रेक बाच झील में पैराशूट के बाद लगभग डूब गए । कुछ उत्तरी वियतनामी लोगों ने उसे किनारे पर खींच लिया, फिर दूसरों ने उसके कंधे को राइफल बट से कुचल दिया और उसे संगीन कर दिया।  मैक्केन को तब हनोई के मुख्य होआ ले जेल में ले जाया गया , जिसका उपनाम "हनोई हिल्टन" था। 
हालांकि मैक्केन गंभीर रूप से घायल और घायल हो गए थे, लेकिन उनके बंधकों ने उनका इलाज करने से इनकार कर दिया। उन्होंने जानकारी प्राप्त करने के लिए उसे पीटा और पूछताछ की , और उसे चिकित्सा देखभाल तभी दी गई जब उत्तरी वियतनामी को पता चला कि उसके पिता एक एडमिरल थे।  युद्ध के कैदी (पीओडब्ल्यू) के रूप में उनकी स्थिति ने प्रमुख अमेरिकी समाचार पत्रों के पहले पन्ने बनाए।  
मैक्केन ने अस्पताल में छह सप्ताह बिताए, जहां उन्हें मामूली देखभाल मिली। उसने 50 पाउंड (23 किग्रा) वजन कम कर लिया था, वह एक छाती में था, और उसके भूरे बाल सफेद हो गए थे।  मैक्केन को हनोई के बाहरी इलाके में एक अलग शिविर में भेजा गया।  दिसंबर १९६७ में, मैक्केन को दो अन्य अमेरिकियों के साथ एक सेल में रखा गया था, जिन्होंने उनसे एक सप्ताह से अधिक जीवित रहने की उम्मीद नहीं की थी।  मार्च १९६८ में, मैक्केन को एकांत कारावास में रखा गया , जहाँ वे दो साल तक रहे। 
1968 के मध्य में, उनके पिता जॉन एस. मैक्केन जूनियर को वियतनाम थिएटर में सभी अमेरिकी सेनाओं का कमांडर नामित किया गया था, और उत्तरी वियतनामी ने मैक्केन को जल्द रिहाई की पेशकश की थी  क्योंकि वे प्रचार उद्देश्यों के लिए दयालु दिखना चाहते थे,  और अन्य युद्धबंदियों को भी यह दिखाने के लिए कि कुलीन कैदी तरजीह देने के लिए तैयार थे।  मैक्केन ने प्रत्यावर्तन से इनकार कर दिया, जब तक कि उसके पहले लिए गए प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को भी रिहा नहीं कर दिया गया। इस तरह की प्रारंभिक रिहाई को सैन्य आचार संहिता की POWs की व्याख्या द्वारा निषिद्ध किया गया था , जो अनुच्छेद III में कहता है: "मैं न तो पैरोल स्वीकार करूंगा और न ही दुश्मन से विशेष एहसान स्वीकार करूंगा।"  दुश्मनों को प्रचार के लिए कैदियों का इस्तेमाल करने से रोकने के लिए, अधिकारियों को उस क्रम में रिहा होने के लिए सहमत होना था जिस क्रम में उन्हें पकड़ा गया था। 
अगस्त 1968 से शुरू होकर, मैक्केन को गंभीर यातना के एक कार्यक्रम के अधीन किया गया था।  उसे हर दो घंटे में बांधकर पीटा जाता था; यह सजा उसी समय हुई जब वह गर्मी की थकावट और पेचिश से पीड़ित था ।   आगे की चोटों ने मैक्केन को "आत्महत्या के बिंदु" पर ला दिया, लेकिन उनकी तैयारी को गार्डों ने बाधित कर दिया। आखिरकार, मैक्केन ने अमेरिका विरोधी प्रचार "स्वीकारोक्ति" कर दिया।  उन्होंने हमेशा महसूस किया था कि उनका बयान अपमानजनक था, लेकिन जैसा कि उन्होंने बाद में लिखा, "मैंने वहां सीखा जो हमने सीखा था: हर आदमी का अपना ब्रेकिंग पॉइंट होता है। मैं अपने तक पहुंच गया था।"   "स्वीकारोक्ति" और प्रचार बयानों को निकालने के लिए कई अमेरिकी युद्धबंदियों को प्रताड़ित किया गया और उनके साथ दुर्व्यवहार किया गया;  वस्तुतः उन सभी ने अंततः अपने बंधकों को कुछ न कुछ दिया।  मैक्केन को अतिरिक्त बयानों पर हस्ताक्षर करने से लगातार इनकार करने के कारण साप्ताहिक रूप से दो से तीन पिटाई मिलीं। 
मैक्केन ने हनोई में शांति की मांग करने वाले विभिन्न युद्ध-विरोधी समूहों से मिलने से इनकार कर दिया, न तो उन्हें और न ही उत्तर वियतनामी को एक प्रचार जीत देना चाहते थे।  १९६९ के अंत से, मैक्केन और कई अन्य युद्धबंदियों का उपचार अधिक सहनीय हो गया,  जबकि मैक्केन ने शिविर अधिकारियों का विरोध करना जारी रखा।  मैक्केन और अन्य कैदियों ने दिसंबर १९७२ के अमेरिकी "क्रिसमस बमबारी" अभियान की सराहना की, इसे उत्तरी वियतनाम को शर्तों पर धकेलने के लिए एक जबरदस्त उपाय के रूप में देखा।  
14 मार्च, 1973 को युद्ध के 108 अन्य कैदियों के साथ उनकी रिहाई तक, मैक्केन साढ़े पांच साल के लिए उत्तरी वियतनाम में युद्ध बंदी थे।  युद्ध के दौरान लगी चोटों के कारण वह स्थायी रूप से अपने हाथों को अपने सिर के ऊपर उठाने में असमर्थ हो गया।  युद्ध के बाद, मैक्केन, अपने परिवार और अपनी दूसरी पत्नी सिंडी के साथ , कुछ मौकों पर उस जगह पर लौट आए, जो उनके कब्जे के दौरान वहां उनके साथ हुई घटना को समझने की कोशिश में था। 
कमांडिंग ऑफिसर, सीनेट से संपर्क, और दूसरी शादी
मैक्केन संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका लौटने पर अपने परिवार के साथ फिर से मिल गए । उनकी पत्नी कैरल दिसंबर 1969 में एक वाहन दुर्घटना में गंभीर रूप से घायल हो गई थीं। वह तब व्हीलचेयर या बैसाखी पर चार इंच छोटी थीं, और पिछली बार जब उन्होंने उसे देखा था, उससे काफी भारी थी। एक लौटे हुए POW के रूप में, वह एक तरह के सेलिब्रिटी बन गए। 
McCain underwent treatment for his injuries that included months of physical therapy. He attended the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C. during 1973–1974. He was rehabilitated by late 1974, and his flight status was reinstated. In 1976, he became Commanding Officer of a training squadron that was stationed in Florida. He improved the unit's flight readiness and safety records, and won the squadron its first-ever Meritorious Unit Commendation. During this period in Florida, he had extramarital affairs, and his marriage began to falter, about which he later stated: "The blame was entirely mine".
McCain served as the Navy's liaison to the U.S. Senate beginning in 1977. In retrospect, he said that this represented his "real entry into the world of politics, and the beginning of my second career as a public servant." His key behind-the-scenes role gained congressional financing for a new supercarrier against the wishes of the Carter administration.
In April 1979, McCain met Cindy Lou Hensley, a teacher from Phoenix, Arizona, whose father had founded a large beer distributorship. They began dating, and he urged his wife, Carol, to grant him a divorce, which she did in February 1980; the uncontested divorce took effect in April 1980. The settlement included two houses, and financial support for her ongoing medical treatments due to her 1969 car accident; they remained on good terms. McCain and Hensley were married on May 17, 1980, with Senators William Cohen and Gary Hart attending as groomsmen. McCain's children did not attend, and several years passed before they reconciled. John and Cindy McCain entered into a prenuptial agreement that kept most of her family's assets under her name; they kept their finances apart, and filed separate income tax returns.
McCain decided to leave the Navy. It was doubtful whether he would ever be promoted to the rank of full admiral, as he had poor annual physicals and had not been given a major sea command. His chances of being promoted to rear admiral were better, but he declined that prospect, as he had already made plans to run for Congress and said he could "do more good there."
McCain retired from the Navy as a captain on April 1, 1981. He was designated as disabled and awarded a disability pension. Upon leaving the military, he moved to Arizona. His numerous military decorations and awards include: the Silver Star, two Legion of Merits, Distinguished Flying Cross, three Bronze Star Medals, two Purple Hearts, two Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medals, and the Prisoner of War Medal.
हाउस और सीनेट चुनाव और करियर (1982-2000)
McCain set his sights on becoming a representative because he was interested in current events, was ready for a new challenge, and had developed political ambitions during his time as Senate liaison. Living in Phoenix, he went to work for Hensley & Co., his new father-in-law Jim Hensley's large Anheuser-Busch beer distributorship. As vice president of public relations at the distributorship, he gained political support among the local business community, meeting powerful figures such as banker Charles Keating Jr., real estate developer Fife Symington III (later Governor of Arizona) and newspaper publisher Darrow "Duke" Tully. In 1982, McCain ran as a Republican for an open seat in Arizona's 1st congressional district, which was being vacated by 30-year incumbent Republican John Jacob Rhodes. A newcomer to the state, McCain was hit with charges of being a carpetbagger. McCain responded to a voter making that charge with what a Phoenix Gazette columnist later described as "the most devastating response to a potentially troublesome political issue I've ever heard":
Listen, pal. I spent 22 years in the Navy. My father was in the Navy. My grandfather was in the Navy. We in the military service tend to move a lot. We have to live in all parts of the country, all parts of the world. I wish I could have had the luxury, like you, of growing up and living and spending my entire life in a nice place like the First District of Arizona, but I was doing other things. As a matter of fact, when I think about it now, the place I lived longest in my life was Hanoi.
McCain won a highly contested primary election with the assistance of local political endorsements, his Washington connections, and money that his wife lent to his campaign. He then easily won the general election in the heavily Republican district.
In 1983, McCain was elected to lead the incoming group of Republican representatives, and was assigned to the House Committee on Interior Affairs. Also that year, he opposed creation of a federal Martin Luther King Jr. Day, but admitted in 2008: "I was wrong and eventually realized that, in time to give full support [in 1990] for a state holiday in Arizona."
At this point, McCain's politics were mainly in line with those of President Ronald Reagan; this included support for Reaganomics, and he was active on Indian Affairs bills. He supported most aspects of the foreign policy of the Reagan administration, including its hardline stance against the Soviet Union and policy towards Central American conflicts, such as backing the Contras in Nicaragua. McCain opposed keeping U.S. Marines deployed in Lebanon, citing unattainable objectives, and subsequently criticized President Reagan for pulling out the troops too late; in the interim, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing killed hundreds. McCain won re-election to the House easily in 1984, and gained a spot on the House Foreign Affairs Committee. In 1985, he made his first return trip to Vietnam, and also traveled to Chile where he met with its military junta ruler, General Augusto Pinochet.
In 1984, McCain and Cindy had their first child, daughter Meghan, followed two years later by son John IV and in 1988 by son James. In 1991, Cindy brought an abandoned three-month-old girl needing medical treatment to the U.S. from a Bangladeshi orphanage run by Mother Teresa. The McCains decided to adopt her and she was named Bridget.
First two terms in the U.S. Senate
McCain's Senate career began in January 1987, after he defeated his Democratic opponent, former state legislator Richard Kimball, by 20 percentage points in the 1986 election. McCain succeeded Arizona native, conservative icon, and the 1964 Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater upon Goldwater's retirement as U.S. senator from Arizona for 30 years. In January 1988, McCain voted in favor of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, and voted to override President Reagan's veto of that legislation the following March.
Senator McCain became a member of the Armed Services Committee, with which he had formerly done his Navy liaison work; he also joined the Commerce Committee and the Indian Affairs Committee. He continued to support the Native American agenda. As first a House member and then a senator—and as a lifelong gambler with close ties to the gambling industry—McCain was one of the main authors of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which codified rules regarding Native American gambling enterprises. McCain was also a strong supporter of the Gramm-Rudman legislation that enforced automatic spending cuts in the case of budget deficits.
McCain soon gained national visibility. He delivered a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention, was mentioned by the press as a short list vice-presidential running mate for Republican nominee George H. W. Bush, and was named chairman of Veterans for Bush.
McCain became embroiled in a scandal during the 1980s, as one of five United States senators comprising the so-called Keating Five. Between 1982 and 1987, McCain had received $112,000 in lawful political contributions from Charles Keating Jr. and his associates at Lincoln Savings and Loan Association, along with trips on Keating's jets that McCain belatedly repaid, in 1989. In 1987, McCain was one of the five senators whom Keating contacted in order to prevent the government's seizure of Lincoln, and McCain met twice with federal regulators to discuss the government's investigation of Lincoln. In 1999, McCain said: "The appearance of it was wrong. It's a wrong appearance when a group of senators appear in a meeting with a group of regulators, because it conveys the impression of undue and improper influence. And it was the wrong thing to do." In the end, McCain was cleared by the Senate Ethics Committee of acting improperly or violating any law or Senate rule, but was mildly rebuked for exercising "poor judgment".
In his 1992 re-election bid, the Keating Five affair was not a major issue, and he won handily, gaining 56 percent of the vote to defeat Democratic community and civil rights activist Claire Sargent and independent former governor, Evan Mecham.
As a member of the 1991–1993 Senate Select Committee on POW/MIA Affairs, chaired by fellow Vietnam War veteran and Democrat, John Kerry, McCain investigated the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, to determine the fate of U.S. service personnel listed as missing in action during the Vietnam War. The committee's unanimous report stated there was "no compelling evidence that proves that any American remains alive in captivity in Southeast Asia." Helped by McCain's efforts, in 1995 the U.S. normalized diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain was vilified by some POW/MIA activists who, despite the committee's unanimous report, believed large numbers of Americans were still held against their will in Southeast Asia. From January 1993 until his death, McCain was Chairman of the International Republican Institute, an organization partly funded by the U.S. government that supports the emergence of political democracy worldwide.
In 1993 and 1994, McCain voted to confirm President Clinton's nominees Stephen Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg whom he considered to be qualified for the U.S. Supreme Court. He later explained that "under our Constitution, it is the president's call to make." McCain had also voted to confirm nominees of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, including Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas.
Campaign Finance Reform
McCain attacked what he saw as the corrupting influence of large political contributions—from corporations, labor unions, other organizations, and wealthy individuals—and he made this his signature issue. Starting in 1994, he worked with Democratic Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold on campaign finance reform; their McCain–Feingold bill attempted to put limits on "soft money". The efforts of McCain and Feingold were opposed by some of the moneyed interests targeted, by incumbents in both parties, by those who felt spending limits impinged on free political speech and might be unconstitutional as well, and by those who wanted to counterbalance the power of what they saw as media bias. Despite sympathetic coverage in the media, initial versions of the McCain–Feingold Act were filibustered and never came to a vote.
The term "maverick Republican" became a label frequently applied to McCain, and he also used it himself. In 1993, McCain opposed military operations in Somalia. Another target of his was pork barrel spending by Congress, and he actively supported the Line Item Veto Act of 1996, which gave the president power to veto individual spending items but was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1998.
In the 1996 presidential election, McCain was again on the short list of possible vice-presidential picks, this time for Republican nominee Bob Dole. The following year, Time magazine named McCain as one of the "25 Most Influential People in America".
In 1997, McCain became chairman of the powerful Senate Commerce Committee; he was criticized for accepting funds from corporations and businesses under the committee's purview, but in response said the small contributions he received were not part of the big-money nature of the campaign finance problem. McCain took on the tobacco industry in 1998, proposing legislation that would increase cigarette taxes in order to fund anti-smoking campaigns, discourage teenage smokers, increase money for health research studies, and help states pay for smoking-related health care costs. Supported by the Clinton administration but opposed by the industry and most Republicans, the bill failed to gain cloture.
Start of third term in the U.S. Senate
In November 1998, McCain won re-election to a third Senate term; he prevailed in a landslide over his Democratic opponent, environmental lawyer Ed Ranger. In the February 1999 Senate trial following the impeachment of Bill Clinton, McCain voted to convict the president on both the perjury and obstruction of justice counts, saying Clinton had violated his sworn oath of office. In March 1999, McCain voted to approve the NATO bombing campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, saying that the ongoing genocide of the Kosovo War must be stopped and criticizing past Clinton administration inaction. Later in 1999, McCain shared the Profile in Courage Award with Feingold for their work in trying to enact their campaign finance reform, although the bill was still failing repeated attempts to gain cloture.
In August 1999, McCain's memoir Faith of My Fathers, co-authored with Mark Salter, was published; a reviewer observed that its appearance "seems to have been timed to the unfolding Presidential campaign." The most successful of his writings, it received positive reviews, became a bestseller, and was later made into a TV film. The book traces McCain's family background and childhood, covers his time at Annapolis and his service before and during the Vietnam War, concluding with his release from captivity in 1973. According to one reviewer, it describes "the kind of challenges that most of us can barely imagine. It's a fascinating history of a remarkable military family."
2000 का राष्ट्रपति अभियान
McCain announced his candidacy for president on September 27, 1999, in Nashua, New Hampshire, saying he was staging "a fight to take our government back from the power brokers and special interests, and return it to the people and the noble cause of freedom it was created to serve". The frontrunner for the Republican nomination was Texas Governor George W. Bush, who had the political and financial support of most of the party establishment, whereas McCain was supported by many moderate Republicans and some conservative Republicans.
McCain focused on the New Hampshire primary, where his message appealed to independents. He traveled on a campaign bus called the Straight Talk Express. He held many town hall meetings, answering every question voters asked, in a successful example of "retail politics", and he used free media to compensate for his lack of funds. One reporter later recounted that, "McCain talked all day long with reporters on his Straight Talk Express bus; he talked so much that sometimes he said things that he shouldn't have, and that's why the media loved him." On February 1, 2000, he won New Hampshire's primary with 49 percent of the vote to Bush's 30 percent. The Bush campaign and the Republican establishment feared that a McCain victory in the crucial South Carolina primary might give his campaign unstoppable momentum.
The Arizona Republic wrote that the McCain–Bush primary contest in South Carolina "has entered national political lore as a low-water mark in presidential campaigns", while The New York Times called it "a painful symbol of the brutality of American politics". A variety of interest groups, which McCain had challenged in the past, ran negative ads. Bush borrowed McCain's earlier language of reform, and declined to dissociate himself from a veterans activist who accused McCain (in Bush's presence) of having "abandoned the veterans" on POW/MIA and Agent Orange issues.
Incensed, McCain ran ads accusing Bush of lying and comparing the governor to Bill Clinton, which Bush said was "about as low a blow as you can give in a Republican primary". An anonymous smear campaign began against McCain, delivered by push polls, faxes, e-mails, flyers, and audience plants. The smears claimed that McCain had fathered a black child out of wedlock (the McCains' dark-skinned daughter was adopted from Bangladesh), that his wife Cindy was a drug addict, that he was a homosexual, and that he was a "Manchurian Candidate" who was either a traitor or mentally unstable from his North Vietnam POW days. The Bush campaign strongly denied any involvement with the attacks.
McCain lost South Carolina on February 19, with 42 percent of the vote to Bush's 53 percent, in part because Bush mobilized the state's evangelical voters and outspent McCain. The win allowed Bush to regain lost momentum. McCain said of the rumor spreaders, "I believe that there is a special place in hell for people like those." According to one acquaintance, the South Carolina experience left him in a "very dark place".
McCain's campaign never completely recovered from his South Carolina defeat, although he did rebound partially by winning in Arizona and Michigan a few days later. He made a speech in Virginia Beach that criticized Christian leaders, including Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell, as divisive conservatives, declaring "... we embrace the fine members of the religious conservative community. But that does not mean that we will pander to their self-appointed leaders." McCain lost the Virginia primary on February 29, and on March 7 lost nine of the thirteen primaries on Super Tuesday to Bush. With little hope of overcoming Bush's delegate lead, McCain withdrew from the race on March 9, 2000. He endorsed Bush two months later, and made occasional appearances with the Texas governor during the general election campaign.
सीनेट कैरियर (2000-2008)
Remainder of third Senate term
McCain began 2001 by breaking with the new George W. Bush administration on a number of matters, including HMO reform, climate change, and gun control legislation; McCain–Feingold was opposed by Bush as well. In May 2001, McCain was one of only two Senate Republicans to vote against the Bush tax cuts. Besides the differences with Bush on ideological grounds, there was considerable antagonism between the two remaining from the previous year's campaign. Later, when a Republican senator, Jim Jeffords, became an Independent, thereby throwing control of the Senate to the Democrats, McCain defended Jeffords against "self-appointed enforcers of party loyalty". Indeed, there was speculation at the time, and in years since, about McCain himself leaving the Republican Party, but McCain had always adamantly denied that he ever considered doing so. Beginning in 2001, McCain used political capital gained from his presidential run, as well as improved legislative skills and relationships with other members, to become one of the Senate's most influential members.
After the September 11, 2001, attacks, McCain supported Bush and the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan. He and Democratic senator Joe Lieberman wrote the legislation that created the 9/11 Commission, while he and Democratic senator Fritz Hollings co-sponsored the Aviation and Transportation Security Act that federalized airport security.
In March 2002, McCain–Feingold, officially known as the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, passed in both Houses of Congress and was signed into law by President Bush. Seven years in the making, it was McCain's greatest legislative achievement.
Meanwhile, in discussions over proposed U.S. action against Iraq, McCain was a strong supporter of the Bush administration's position. He stated that Iraq was "a clear and present danger to the United States of America", and voted accordingly for the Iraq War Resolution in October 2002. He predicted that U.S. forces would be treated as liberators by a large number of the Iraqi people. In May 2003, McCain voted against the second round of Bush tax cuts, saying it was unwise at a time of war. By November 2003, after a trip to Iraq, he was publicly questioning Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, saying that more U.S. troops were needed; the following year, McCain announced that he had lost confidence in Rumsfeld.
In October 2003, McCain and Lieberman co-sponsored the Climate Stewardship Act that would have introduced a cap and trade system aimed at returning greenhouse gas emissions to 2000 levels; the bill was defeated with 55 votes to 43 in the Senate. They reintroduced modified versions of the Act two additional times, for the final time in January 2007 with the co-sponsorship of Barack Obama, among others.
In the 2004 U.S. presidential election campaign, McCain was once again frequently mentioned for the vice-presidential slot, only this time as part of the Democratic ticket under nominee John Kerry. McCain said that Kerry had never formally offered him the position and that he would not have accepted it if he had. At the 2004 Republican National Convention, McCain supported Bush for re-election, praising Bush's management of the War on Terror since the September 11 attacks. At the same time, he defended Kerry's Vietnam War record. By August 2004, McCain had the best favorable-to-unfavorable rating (55 percent to 19 percent) of any national politician; he campaigned for Bush much more than he had four years previously, though the two remained situational allies rather than friends.
McCain was also up for re-election as senator, in 2004. He defeated little-known Democratic schoolteacher Stuart Starky with his biggest margin of victory, garnering 77 percent of the vote.
Start of fourth Senate term
In May 2005, McCain led the so-called Gang of 14 in the Senate, which established a compromise that preserved the ability of senators to filibuster judicial nominees, but only in "extraordinary circumstances". The compromise took the steam out of the filibuster movement, but some Republicans remained disappointed that the compromise did not eliminate filibusters of judicial nominees in all circumstances. McCain subsequently cast Supreme Court confirmation votes in favor of John Roberts and Samuel Alito, calling them "two of the finest justices ever appointed to the United States Supreme Court."
Breaking from his 2001 and 2003 votes, McCain supported the Bush tax cut extension in May 2006, saying not to do so would amount to a tax increase. Working with Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy, McCain was a strong proponent of comprehensive immigration reform, which would involve legalization, guest worker programs, and border enforcement components. The Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act was never voted on in 2005, while the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006 passed the Senate in May 2006 but failed in the House. In June 2007, President Bush, McCain, and others made the strongest push yet for such a bill, the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, but it aroused intense grassroots opposition among talk radio listeners and others, some of whom furiously characterized the proposal as an "amnesty" program, and the bill twice failed to gain cloture in the Senate.
By the middle of the 2000s (decade), the increased Indian gaming that McCain had helped bring about was a $23 billion industry. He was twice chairman of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee, in 1995–1997 and 2005–2007, and his Committee helped expose the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal. By 2005 and 2006, McCain was pushing for amendments to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act which would have limited creation of off-reservation casinos, and also limited the movement of tribes across state lines to build casinos.
Owing to his time as a POW, McCain was recognized for his sensitivity to the detention and interrogation of detainees in the War on Terror. An opponent of the Bush administration's use of torture and detention without trial at Guantánamo Bay, saying: "some of these guys are terrible, terrible killers and the worst kind of scum of humanity. But, one, they deserve to have some adjudication of their cases ... even Adolf Eichmann got a trial". In October 2005, McCain introduced the McCain Detainee Amendment to the Defense Appropriations bill for 2005, and the Senate voted 90–9 to support the amendment. It prohibits inhumane treatment of prisoners, including prisoners at Guantánamo, by confining military interrogations to the techniques in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Interrogation. Although Bush had threatened to veto the bill if McCain's amendment was included, the President announced in December 2005 that he accepted McCain's terms and would "make it clear to the world that this government does not torture and that we adhere to the international convention of torture, whether it be here at home or abroad". This stance, among others, led to McCain being named by Time magazine in 2006 as one of America's 10 Best Senators. McCain voted in February 2008 against a bill containing a ban on waterboarding, which provision was later narrowly passed and vetoed by Bush. However, the bill in question contained other provisions to which McCain objected, and his spokesman stated: "This wasn't a vote on waterboarding. This was a vote on applying the standards of the [Army] field manual to CIA personnel."
Meanwhile, McCain continued questioning the progress of the war in Iraq. In September 2005, he remarked upon Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Richard Myers' optimistic outlook on the war's progress: "Things have not gone as well as we had planned or expected, nor as we were told by you, General Myers." In August 2006, he criticized the administration for continually understating the effectiveness of the insurgency: "We [have] not told the American people how tough and difficult this could be." From the beginning, McCain strongly supported the Iraq troop surge of 2007. The strategy's opponents labeled it "McCain's plan" and University of Virginia political science professor Larry Sabato said, "McCain owns Iraq just as much as Bush does now." The surge and the war were unpopular during most of the year, even within the Republican Party, as McCain's presidential campaign was underway; faced with the consequences, McCain frequently responded, "I would much rather lose a campaign than a war." In March 2008, McCain credited the surge strategy with reducing violence in Iraq, as he made his eighth trip to that country since the war began.
2008 के राष्ट्रपति अभियान
McCain formally announced his intention to run for President of the United States on April 25, 2007, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He stated that: "I'm not running for president to be somebody, but to do something; to do the hard but necessary things, not the easy and needless things."
McCain's oft-cited strengths as a presidential candidate for 2008 included national name recognition, sponsorship of major lobbying and campaign finance reform initiatives, his ability to reach across the aisle, his well-known military service and experience as a POW, his experience from the 2000 presidential campaign, and an expectation that he would capture Bush's top fundraisers. During the 2006 election cycle, McCain had attended 346 events and helped raise more than $10.5 million on behalf of Republican candidates. McCain also became more willing to ask business and industry for campaign contributions, while maintaining that such contributions would not affect any official decisions he would make. Despite being considered the front-runner for the nomination by pundits as 2007 began, McCain was in second place behind former Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani in national Republican polls as the year progressed.
McCain had fundraising problems in the first half of 2007, due in part to his support for the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, which was unpopular among the Republican base electorate. Large-scale campaign staff downsizing took place in early July, but McCain said that he was not considering dropping out of the race. Later that month, the candidate's campaign manager and campaign chief strategist both departed. McCain slumped badly in national polls, often running third or fourth with 15 percent or less support.
The Arizona senator subsequently resumed his familiar position as a political underdog, riding the Straight Talk Express and taking advantage of free media such as debates and sponsored events. By December 2007, the Republican race was unsettled, with none of the top-tier candidates dominating the race and all of them possessing major vulnerabilities with different elements of the Republican base electorate. McCain was showing a resurgence, in particular with renewed strength in New Hampshire—the scene of his 2000 triumph—and was bolstered further by the endorsements of The Boston Globe, the New Hampshire Union Leader, and almost two dozen other state newspapers, as well as from Senator Lieberman (now an Independent Democrat). McCain decided not to campaign significantly in the January 3, 2008, Iowa caucuses, which saw a win by former Governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee.
McCain's comeback plan paid off when he won the New Hampshire primary on January 8, defeating former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney in a close contest, to once again become one of the front-runners in the race. In mid-January, McCain placed first in the South Carolina primary, narrowly defeating Mike Huckabee. Pundits credited the third-place finisher, Tennessee's former U.S. Senator Fred Thompson, with drawing votes from Huckabee in South Carolina, thereby giving a narrow win to McCain. A week later, McCain won the Florida primary, beating Romney again in a close contest; Giuliani then dropped out and endorsed McCain.
On February 5, McCain won both the majority of states and delegates in the Super Tuesday Republican primaries, giving him a commanding lead toward the Republican nomination. Romney departed from the race on February 7. McCain's wins in the March 4 primaries clinched a majority of the delegates, and he became the presumptive Republican nominee.
McCain was born in the Panama Canal Zone. Had he been elected, he would have become the first president who was born outside the contiguous forty-eight states. This raised a potential legal issue, since the United States Constitution requires the president to be a natural-born citizen of the United States. A bipartisan legal review, and a unanimous but non-binding Senate resolution, both concluded that he was a natural-born citizen. If inaugurated in 2009 at the age of 72 years and 144 days, he would have been the oldest person to become president.
McCain addressed concerns about his age and past health issues, stating in 2005 that his health was "excellent". He had been treated for melanoma and an operation in 2000 for that condition left a noticeable mark on the left side of his face. McCain's prognosis appeared favorable, according to independent experts, especially because he had already survived without a recurrence for more than seven years. In May 2008, McCain's campaign briefly let the press review his medical records, and he was described as appearing cancer-free, having a strong heart, and in general being in good health.
McCain clinched enough delegates for the nomination and his focus shifted toward the general election, while Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton fought a prolonged battle for the Democratic nomination. McCain introduced various policy proposals, and sought to improve his fundraising. Cindy McCain, who accounted for most of the couple's wealth with an estimated net worth of $100 million, made part of her tax returns public in May. After facing criticism about lobbyists on staff, the McCain campaign issued new rules in May 2008 to avoid conflicts of interest, causing five top aides to leave.
When Obama became the Democrats' presumptive nominee in early June, McCain proposed joint town hall meetings, but Obama instead requested more traditional debates for the fall. In July, a staff shake-up put Steve Schmidt in full operational control of the McCain campaign. Rick Davis remained as campaign manager but with a reduced role. Davis had also managed McCain's 2000 presidential campaign; in 2005 and 2006, U.S. intelligence warned McCain's Senate staff about Davis's Russian links but gave no further warnings.
Throughout the summer of 2008, Obama typically led McCain in national polls by single-digit margins, and also led in several key swing states. McCain reprised his familiar underdog role, which was due at least in part to the overall challenges Republicans faced in the election year. McCain accepted public financing for the general election campaign, and the restrictions that go with it, while criticizing his Democratic opponent for becoming the first major party candidate to opt out of such financing for the general election since the system was implemented in 1976. The Republican's broad campaign theme focused on his experience and ability to lead, compared to Obama's.
On August 29, 2008, McCain revealed Alaska Governor Sarah Palin as his surprise choice for a running mate. McCain was only the second U.S. major-party presidential nominee (after Walter Mondale, who chose Geraldine Ferraro) to select a woman as his running mate and the first Republican to do so. On September 3, 2008, McCain and Palin became the Republican Party's presidential and vice presidential nominees at the 2008 Republican National Convention in Saint Paul, Minnesota. McCain surged ahead of Obama in national polls following the convention, as the Palin pick energized core Republican voters who had previously been wary of him. However, by the campaign's own later admission, the rollout of Palin to the national media went poorly, and voter reactions to Palin grew increasingly negative, especially among independents and other voters concerned about her qualifications.
McCain's decision to choose Sarah Palin as his running mate was criticized; New York Times journalist David Brooks said that "he took a disease that was running through the Republican party – anti-intellectualism, disrespect for facts – and he put it right at the centre of the party". Laura McGann in Vox says that McCain gave the "reality TV politics" and Tea Party movement more political legitimacy, as well as solidifying "the Republican Party's comfort with a candidate who would say absurdities ... unleashing a political style and a values system that animated the Tea Party movement and laid the groundwork for a Trump presidency." Although McCain later expressed regret for not choosing the independent Senator Joe Lieberman (who had previously been Al Gore's running mate in 2000, while still elected as a Democrat) as his VP candidate instead, he consistently defended Palin's performances at his events.
On September 24, McCain said he was temporarily suspending his campaign activities, called on Obama to join him, and proposed delaying the first of the general election debates with Obama, in order to work on the proposed U.S. financial system bailout before Congress, which was targeted at addressing the subprime mortgage crisis and the financial crisis of 2007–2008. McCain's intervention helped to give dissatisfied House Republicans an opportunity to propose changes to the plan that was otherwise close to agreement. After Obama declined McCain's suspension suggestion, McCain went ahead with the debate on September 26. On October 1, McCain voted in favor of a revised $700 billion rescue plan. Another debate was held on October 7; like the first one, polls afterward suggested that Obama had won it. A final presidential debate occurred on October 15. Down the stretch, McCain was outspent by Obama by a four-to-one margin.
During and after the final debate, McCain compared Obama's proposed policies to socialism and often invoked "Joe the Plumber" as a symbol of American small business dreams that would be thwarted by an Obama presidency. He barred using the Jeremiah Wright controversy in ads against Obama, but the campaign did frequently criticize Obama regarding his purported relationship with Bill Ayers. His rallies became increasingly vitriolic, with attendees denigrating Obama and displaying a growing anti-Muslim and anti-African-American sentiment. During a campaign rally in Minnesota, Gayle Quinnell, a McCain supporter, told him she did not trust Obama because "he's an Arab". McCain replied, "No ma'am. He's a decent family man, citizen, that I just happen to have disagreements with on fundamental issues." McCain's response was considered one of the finer moments of the campaign and was still being viewed several years later as a marker for civility in American politics, particularly in light of the anti-Muslim and anti-immigrant animus of the Donald Trump presidency. Meghan McCain said that she cannot "go a day without someone bringing up (that) moment," and noted that at the time "there were a lot of people really trying to get my dad to go (against Obama) with ... you're a Muslim, you're not an American aspect of that," but that her father had refused. "I can remember thinking that it was a morally amazing and beautiful moment, but that maybe there would be people in the Republican Party that would be quite angry," she said.
The election took place on November 4, and Barack Obama was declared the projected winner at about 11:00 pm Eastern Standard Time; McCain delivered his concession speech in Phoenix, Arizona about twenty minutes later. In it, he noted the historic and special significance of Obama being elected the nation's first African American president. In the end, McCain won 173 electoral votes to Obama's 365; McCain failed to win most of the battleground states and lost some traditionally Republican ones. McCain gained 46 percent of the nationwide popular vote, compared to Obama's 53 percent.
2008 के बाद सीनेट कैरियर
Remainder of fourth Senate term
Following his defeat, McCain returned to the Senate amid varying views about what role he might play there. In mid-November 2008 he met with President-elect Obama, and the two discussed issues they had commonality on. Around the same time, McCain indicated that he intended to run for re-election to his Senate seat in 2010. As the inauguration neared, Obama consulted with McCain on a variety of matters, to an extent rarely seen between a president-elect and his defeated rival, and President Obama's inauguration speech contained an allusion to McCain's theme of finding a purpose greater than oneself.
Nevertheless, McCain emerged as a leader of the Republican opposition to the Obama economic stimulus package of 2009, saying it incorporated federal policy changes that had nothing to do with near-term job creation and would expand the growing federal budget deficit. McCain also voted against Obama's Supreme Court nomination of Sonia Sotomayor—saying that while undeniably qualified, "I do not believe that she shares my belief in judicial restraint"—and by August 2009 was siding more often with his Republican Party on closely divided votes than ever before in his senatorial career. McCain reasserted that the War in Afghanistan was winnable and criticized Obama for a slow process in deciding whether to send additional U.S. troops there.
McCain also harshly criticized Obama for scrapping construction of the U.S. missile defense complex in Poland, declined to enter negotiations over climate change legislation similar to what he had proposed in the past, and strongly opposed the Obama health care plan. McCain led a successful filibuster of a measure that would allow repeal of the military's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy towards gays. Factors involved in McCain's new direction included Senate staffers leaving, a renewed concern over national debt levels and the scope of federal government, a possible Republican primary challenge from conservatives in 2010, and McCain's campaign edge being slow to wear off. As one longtime McCain advisor said, "A lot of people, including me, thought he might be the Republican building bridges to the Obama Administration. But he's been more like the guy blowing up the bridges."
In early 2010, a primary challenge from radio talk show host and former U.S. Congressman J. D. Hayworth materialized in the 2010 U.S. Senate election in Arizona and drew support from some but not all elements of the Tea Party movement. With Hayworth using the campaign slogan "The Consistent Conservative", McCain said—despite his own past use of the term on a number of occasions—"I never considered myself a maverick. I consider myself a person who serves the people of Arizona to the best of his abilities." The primary challenge coincided with McCain reversing or muting his stance on some issues such as the bank bailouts, closing of the Guantánamo Bay detention camp, campaign finance restrictions, and gays in the military.
When the health care plan, now called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, passed Congress and became law in March 2010, McCain strongly opposed the landmark legislation not only on its merits but also on the way it had been handled in Congress. As a consequence, he warned that congressional Republicans would not work with Democrats on anything else: "There will be no cooperation for the rest of the year. They have poisoned the well in what they've done and how they've done it." McCain became a vocal defender of Arizona SB 1070, the April 2010 tough anti-illegal immigration state law that aroused national controversy, saying that the state had been forced to take action given the federal government's inability to control the border. In the August 24 primary, McCain beat Hayworth by a 56 to 32 percent margin. McCain proceeded to easily defeat Democratic Tucson city councilman Rodney Glassman in the general election.
In the lame duck session of the 111th Congress, McCain voted for the compromise Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, but against the DREAM Act (which he had once sponsored) and the New START Treaty. Most prominently, he continued to lead the eventually losing fight against "Don't ask, don't tell" repeal. In his opposition, he sometimes fell into anger or hostility on the Senate floor, and called its passage "a very sad day" that would compromise the battle effectiveness of the military.
Fifth Senate term
While control of the House of Representatives went over to the Republicans in the 112th Congress, the Senate stayed Democratic and McCain continued to be the ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. As the Arab Spring took center stage, McCain urged that the embattled Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, step down and thought the U.S. should push for democratic reforms in the region despite the associated risks of religious extremists gaining power. McCain was an especially vocal supporter of the 2011 military intervention in Libya. In April of that year he visited the Anti-Gaddafi forces and National Transitional Council in Benghazi, the highest-ranking American to do so, and said that the rebel forces were "my heroes". In June, he joined with Senator Kerry in offering a resolution that would have authorized the military intervention, and said: "The administration's disregard for the elected representatives of the American people on this matter has been troubling and counterproductive." In August, McCain voted for the Budget Control Act of 2011 that resolved the U.S. debt ceiling crisis. In November, McCain and Senator Carl Levin were leaders in efforts to codify in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 that terrorism suspects, no matter where captured, could be detained by the U.S. military and its tribunal system; following objections by civil libertarians, some Democrats, and the White House, McCain and Levin agreed to language making it clear that the bill would not pertain to U.S. citizens.
In the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries, McCain endorsed former 2008 rival Mitt Romney and campaigned for him, but compared the contest to a Greek tragedy due to its drawn-out nature with massive super PAC-funded attack ads damaging all the contenders. He labeled the Supreme Court's 2010 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission decision as "uninformed, arrogant, naïve", and, decrying its effects and the future scandals he thought it would bring, said it would become considered the court's "worst decision ... in the 21st century". McCain took the lead in opposing the defense spending sequestrations brought on by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and gained attention for defending State Department aide Huma Abedin against charges brought by a few House Republicans that she had ties to the Muslim Brotherhood.
McCain continued to be one of the most frequently appearing guests on the Sunday morning news talk shows. He became one of the most vocal critics of the Obama administration's handling of the September 11, 2012, attack on the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, saying it was a "debacle" that featured either "a massive cover-up or incompetence that is not acceptable" and that it was worse than the Watergate scandal. As an outgrowth of this strong opposition, he and a few other senators were successful in blocking the planned nomination of Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice to succeed Hillary Rodham Clinton as U.S. Secretary of State; McCain's friend and colleague John Kerry was nominated instead.
Regarding the Syrian civil war that had begun in 2011, McCain repeatedly argued for the U.S. intervening militarily in the conflict on the side of the anti-government forces. He staged a visit to rebel forces inside Syria in May 2013, the first senator to do so, and called for arming the Free Syrian Army with heavy weapons and for the establishment of a no-fly zone over the country. Following reports that two of the people he posed for pictures with had been responsible for the kidnapping of eleven Lebanese Shiite pilgrims the year before, McCain disputed one of the identifications and said he had not met directly with the other. Following the 2013 Ghouta chemical weapons attack, McCain argued again for strong American military action against the government of the Syrian president, Bashar al-Assad, and in September 2013 cast a Foreign Relations committee vote in favor of Obama's request to Congress that it authorize a military response. McCain took the lead in criticizing a growing non-interventionist movement within the Republican Party, exemplified by his March 2013 comment that Senators Rand Paul and Ted Cruz and Representative Justin Amash were "wacko birds".
During 2013, McCain was a member of a bi-partisan group of senators, the "Gang of Eight", which announced principles for another try at comprehensive immigration reform. The resulting Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 passed the Senate by a 68–32 margin, but faced an uncertain future in the House. In July 2013, McCain was at the forefront of an agreement among senators to drop filibusters against Obama administration executive nominees without Democrats resorting to the "nuclear option" that would disallow such filibusters altogether. However, the option would be imposed later in the year anyway, to the senator's displeasure. These developments and some other negotiations showed that McCain now had improved relations with the Obama administration, including the president himself, as well as with Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, and that he had become the leader of a power center in the Senate for cutting deals in an otherwise bitterly partisan environment. They also led some observers to conclude that the "maverick" McCain had returned.
McCain was publicly skeptical about the Republican strategy that precipitated the U.S. federal government shutdown of 2013 and U.S. debt-ceiling crisis of 2013 in order to defund or delay the Affordable Care Act; in October 2013 he voted in favor of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, which resolved them and said, "Republicans have to understand we have lost this battle, as I predicted weeks ago, that we would not be able to win because we were demanding something that was not achievable." Similarly, he was one of nine Republican senators who voted for the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 at the end of the year. By early 2014, McCain's apostasies were enough that the Arizona Republican Party formally censured him for having what they saw as a liberal record that had been "disastrous and harmful". McCain remained stridently opposed to many aspects of Obama's foreign policy, however, and in June 2014, following major gains by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant in the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive, decried what he saw as a U.S. failure to protect its past gains in Iraq and called on the president's entire national security team to resign. McCain said, "Could all this have been avoided? ... The answer is absolutely yes. If I sound angry it's because I am angry."
McCain was a supporter of the Euromaidan protests against Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and his government, and appeared in Independence Square in Kyiv in December 2013. Following the overthrow of Yanukovych and subsequent 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, McCain became a vocal supporter of providing arms to Ukrainian military forces, saying the sanctions imposed against Russia were not enough. In 2014, McCain led the opposition to the appointments of Colleen Bell, Noah Mamet, and George Tsunis to the ambassadorships in Hungary, Argentina, and Norway, respectively, arguing they were unqualified appointees being rewarded for their political fundraising. Unlike many Republicans, McCain supported the release and contents of the Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture in December 2014, saying "The truth is sometimes a hard pill to swallow. It sometimes causes us difficulties at home and abroad. It is sometimes used by our enemies in attempts to hurt us. But the American people are entitled to it, nonetheless." He added that the CIA's practices following the September 11 attacks had "stained our national honor" while doing "much harm and little practical good" and that "Our enemies act without conscience. We must not." He opposed the Obama administration's December 2014 decision to normalize relations with Cuba.
The 114th United States Congress assembled in January 2015 with Republicans in control of the Senate, and McCain achieved one of his longtime goals when he became chairman of the Armed Services Committee. In this position, he led the writing of proposed Senate legislation that sought to modify parts of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 in order to return responsibility for major weapons systems acquisition back to the individual armed services and their secretaries and away from the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. As chair, McCain tried to maintain a bipartisan approach and forged a good relationship with ranking member Jack Reed. In April 2015, McCain announced that he would run for a sixth term in Arizona's 2016 Senate election. While there was still conservative and Tea Party anger at him, it was unclear if they would mount an effective primary challenge against him. During 2015, McCain strongly opposed the Obama administration's proposed comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear program (later finalized as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)), saying that Secretary of State Kerry was "delusional" and "giv[ing] away the store" in negotiations with Iran. McCain supported the Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, saying: "I'm sure civilians die in war. Not nearly as many as the Houthis have executed."
McCain accused President Obama of being "directly responsible" for the Orlando nightclub shooting "because when he pulled everybody out of Iraq, al-Qaeda went to Syria, became ISIS, and ISIS is what it is today thanks to Barack Obama's failures."
During the 2016 Republican primaries, McCain said he would support the Republican nominee even if it was Donald Trump, but following Mitt Romney's 2016 anti-Trump speech, McCain endorsed the sentiments expressed in that speech, saying he had serious concerns about Trump's "uninformed and indeed dangerous statements on national security issues". Relations between the two had been fraught since early in Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, when McCain referred to a room full of Trump supporters as "crazies", and the real estate mogul then said of McCain: "He insulted me, and he insulted everyone in that room ... He is a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren't captured ... perhaps he was a war hero, but right now he's said a lot of very bad things about a lot of people." McCain also vocally opposed a federal loan guarantee for a development project Trump was contemplating on the West Side of Manhattan in 1996. Following Trump becoming the presumptive nominee of the party on May 3, McCain said that Republican voters had spoken and he would support Trump.
McCain himself faced a primary challenge from Kelli Ward, a fervent Trump supporter, and then was expected to face a potentially strong challenge from Democratic Congresswoman Ann Kirkpatrick in the general election. The senator privately expressed worry over the effect that Trump's unpopularity among Hispanic voters might have on his own chances but also was concerned with more conservative pro-Trump voters; he thus kept his endorsement of Trump in place but tried to speak of him as little as possible given their disagreements. However McCain defeated Ward in the primary by a double-digit percentage point margin and gained a similar lead over Kirkpatrick in general election polls, and when the Donald Trump Access Hollywood controversy broke, he felt secure enough to on October 8 withdraw his endorsement of Trump. McCain stated that Trump's "demeaning comments about women and his boasts about sexual assaults" made it "impossible to continue to offer even conditional support" and added that he would not vote for Hillary Clinton, but would instead "write in the name of some good conservative Republican who is qualified to be president." McCain, at 80 years of age, went on to defeat Kirkpatrick, securing a sixth term as United States Senator from Arizona.
In November 2016, McCain learned of the existence of a dossier regarding the Trump presidential campaign's links to Russia compiled by Christopher Steele. McCain sent a representative to gather more information, who obtained a copy of the dossier. In December 2016, McCain passed on the dossier to FBI Director James Comey in a 1-on-1 meeting. McCain later wrote that he felt the dossier's "allegations were disturbing" but unverifiable by himself, so he let the FBI investigate.
On December 31, 2016, in Tbilisi, Georgia, McCain stated that the United States should strengthen its sanctions against Russia. One year later, on December 23, 2017, the State Department announced that the United States would provide Ukraine with "enhanced defensive capabilities".
Sixth and final Senate term
McCain chaired the January 5, 2017, hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee where Republican and Democratic senators and intelligence officers, including James R. Clapper Jr., the Director of National Intelligence, Michael S. Rogers, the head of the National Security Agency and United States Cyber Command presented a "united front" that "forcefully reaffirmed the conclusion that the Russian government used hacking and leaks to try to influence the presidential election."
Repeal and replacement of Obamacare (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) was a centerpiece of McCain's 2016 re-election campaign, and in July 2017, he said, "Have no doubt: Congress must replace Obamacare, which has hit Arizonans with some of the highest premium increases in the nation and left 14 of Arizona's 15 counties with only one provider option on the exchanges this year." He added that he supports affordable and quality health care, but objected that the pending Senate bill did not do enough to shield the Medicaid system in Arizona.
In response to the death of Chinese Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo, who died of organ failure while in government custody, McCain said that "this is only the latest example of Communist China's assault on human rights, democracy, and freedom."
In October 2017, McCain praised President Trump's decision to decertify Iran's compliance with the Iran nuclear deal (JCPOA) while not yet withdrawing the U.S. from the agreement, saying that the Obama-era policy failed "to meet the multifaceted threat Iran poses. The goals President Trump presented in his speech today are a welcomed long overdue change."
Brain tumor diagnosis and surgery
On July 14, 2017, McCain underwent a minimally invasive craniotomy at Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, in order to remove a blood clot above his left eye. His absence prompted Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell to delay a vote on the Better Care Reconciliation Act. Five days later, Mayo Clinic doctors announced that the laboratory results from the surgery confirmed the presence of a glioblastoma, which is a very aggressive cancerous brain tumor. Standard treatment options for this tumor include chemotherapy and radiation, although even with treatment, average survival time is approximately 14 months. McCain was a survivor of previous cancers, including melanoma.
President Donald Trump publicly wished Senator McCain well, as did many others, including former President Obama. On July 19, McCain's senatorial office issued a statement that he "appreciates the outpouring of support he has received over the last few days. He is in good spirits as he continues to recover at home with his family in Arizona. He is grateful to the doctors and staff at Mayo Clinic for their outstanding care, and is confident that any future treatment will be effective." On July 24, McCain announced via Twitter that he would return to the United States Senate the following day.
Return to the Senate
McCain returned to the Senate on July 25, less than two weeks after brain surgery. He cast a deciding vote allowing the Senate to begin consideration of bills to replace the Affordable Care Act. Along with that vote, he delivered a speech criticizing the party-line voting process used by the Republicans, as well as by the Democrats in passing the Affordable Care Act to begin with, and McCain also urged a "return to regular order" utilizing the usual committee hearings and deliberations. On July 28, he cast the decisive vote against the Republicans' final proposal that month, the so-called "skinny repeal" option, which failed 49–51. McCain supported the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.
McCain did not vote in the Senate after December 2017, remaining instead in Arizona to undergo cancer treatment. On April 15, 2018, he underwent surgery for an infection relating to diverticulitis and the following day was reported to be in stable condition.
- Committee on Armed Services (Chair)
- as chair of the full committee may serve as an ex-officio member of any subcommittee
- Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
- Committee on Indian Affairs
- Committee on Intelligence (ex-officio)
- International Conservation Caucus
- Senate Diabetes Caucus
- Senate National Security Caucus (Co-Chair)
- Sportsmen's Caucus
- Senate Wilderness and Public Lands Caucus
- Senate Ukraine Caucus
- Republican Main Street Partnership.
मृत्यु और अंतिम संस्कार
On August 24, 2018, five days before his 82nd birthday, McCain's family announced that he would no longer receive treatment for his cancer. He died the following day at 4:28 p.m. MST (23:28 UTC), with his wife and family beside him, at his home in Cornville, Arizona.
McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix on August 29, which would have been his 82nd birthday. This was followed by a service at North Phoenix Baptist Church on August 30. His remains were then moved to Washington, D.C. to lie in state in the rotunda of the United States Capitol on August 31, which was followed by a service at the Washington National Cathedral on September 1. He was a "lifelong Episcopalian" who attended, but did not join, a Southern Baptist church for at least 17 years; memorial services were scheduled in both denominations. Prior to his death, McCain requested that former Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama deliver eulogies at his funeral, and asked that both President Donald Trump and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin not attend any of the services. McCain himself planned the funeral arrangements and selected his pallbearers for the service in Washington; the pallbearers included former Vice President Joe Biden, former Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold, former Secretary of Defense William Cohen, actor Warren Beatty, and Russian dissident Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza.
Multiple foreign leaders attended McCain's service: Secretary General of NATO Jens Stoltenberg, President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko, Speaker of Taiwan's Congress Su Jia-chyuan, National Defense Minister of Canada Harjit Sajjan, Defense Minister Jüri Luik and Foreign Minister Sven Mikser of Estonia, Foreign Minister of Latvia Edgars Rinkēvičs, Foreign Minister of Lithuania Linas Antanas Linkevičius, and Foreign Affairs Minister of Saudi Arabia Adel al-Jubeir.
Dignitaries who gave eulogies at the Memorial Service in Washington National Cathedral included Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Henry Kissinger, Joe Lieberman, and his daughter Meghan McCain. The New Yorker described the service as the biggest meeting of anti-Trump figures during his presidency.
Many American political figures paid tribute at the funeral. Those who attended included former United States Presidents Obama, Bush, Clinton, Carter; First Ladies Michelle, Laura, Hillary, Rosalyn; and former Vice Presidents Biden, Cheney, Gore, and Quayle. Former President George H.W. Bush (who died 3 months and 5 days after McCain) was too ill to attend the service, and President Trump was not invited. Many figures from political life, both current and former and from both political parties, attended. Figures included John F. Kelly, Jim Mattis, Bob Dole, Madeleine Albright, John Kerry, Mitch McConnell, Paul Ryan, Nancy Pelosi, Chuck Schumer, Mitt Romney, Lindsey Graham, Jeff Flake, Elizabeth Warren, and Jon Huntsman. President Trump's daughter and son-in-law Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner attended to the displeasure of Meghan McCain. Journalists Carl Bernstein, Tom Brokaw, and Charlie Rose, as well as actors Warren Beatty and Annette Bening and comedians Jay Leno and Joy Behar also attended the funeral.
On September 2, the funeral cortege traveled from Washington, D.C. through Annapolis, Maryland, where the streets were lined with crowds of onlookers, to the Naval Academy. A private service was held at the Naval Academy Chapel, attended by the brigade of midshipmen and McCain's classmates. After the chapel service, McCain was buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery, next to his Naval Academy classmate and lifelong friend Admiral Charles R. Larson.
Many celebrities paid tribute to the late Senator on Twitter. Those included, Tom Hanks who tweeted "Duty. Honor. Country. Our nation thanks you, John McCain. There has been no finer son of America". Whoopi Goldberg, Ellen DeGeneres, Reese Witherspoon, Jimmy Kimmel, and Khloe Kardashian also tweeted out remembrances of the late Senator.
Arizona Governor Doug Ducey was empowered to appoint McCain's interim replacement until a special election is held in 2020 to determine who is to serve out the remainder of McCain's term, which ends in January 2023 and thus appointed the then former Arizona U.S. Senator Jon Kyl to fill the vacancy. Under Arizona law, the appointed replacement must be of the same party as McCain, a Republican. Newspaper speculation about potential appointees has included McCain's widow Cindy, former Senator Jon Kyl, and former Representatives Matt Salmon and John Shadegg. Ducey said that he would not make a formal appointment until after McCain's final funeral and burial; on September 4, two days after McCain was buried, Ducey appointed Kyl to fill McCain's seat.
McCain received many tributes and condolences, including from Congressional colleagues, all living former presidents – Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama – and future president Joe Biden, as well as Vice President Mike Pence and President Richard Nixon's daughters Tricia Nixon Cox and Julie Nixon Eisenhower. French President Emmanuel Macron, Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko and Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison, who had just taken office the previous day, and former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, British Prime Minister Theresa May and former Prime Minister David Cameron, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and former Prime Minister Stephen Harper, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and foreign minister Heiko Maas, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Afghanistan chief executive Abdullah Abdullah, Pakistani foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi, the 14th Dalai Lama, and former Vietnamese ambassador to Washington Nguyễn Quốc Cường also sent condolences.
Colonel Trần Trọng Duyệt, who ran the Hỏa Lò Prison when McCain was held there, remarked, "At that time I liked him personally for his toughness and strong stance. Later on, when he became a US Senator, he and Senator John Kerry greatly contributed to promote Vietnam-US relations so I was very fond of him. When I learnt about his death early this morning, I feel very sad. I would like to send condolences to his family." In a TV interview, Senator Lindsey Graham said McCain's last words to him were "I love you, I have not been cheated." His daughter, Meghan McCain, shared her grief, stating that she was present at the moment he died.
At the 70th Primetime Emmy Awards, McCain was recognized in the "In Memoriam" segment, right before Aretha Franklin. Many fans questioned the inclusion of McCain in the segment because he wasn't known for television. He had, however, appeared in various television projects, including hosting and several cameo appearances on Saturday Night Live. He also made appearances on Parks and Recreation and 24.
Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) announced that he would introduce a resolution to rename the Russell Senate Office Building after McCain. A quarter peal of Grandsire Caters in memory of McCain was rung by the bellringers of Washington National Cathedral the day following his death. Another memorial quarter peal was rung on September 6 on the Bells of Congress at the Old Post Office in Washington.